Evolutionary analysis of human respiratory syncytial virus collected in Myanmar between 2015 and 2018

Wint Wint Phyu, Khin Thu Zar Htwe, Reiko Saito, Yadanar Kyaw, Nay Lin, Clyde Dapat, Hidekazu Osada, Irina Chon, Su Mon Kyaw Win, Akinobu Hibino, Keita Wagatsuma, Latt Latt Kyaw, Htay Htay Tin, Hisami Watanabe

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1 Citation (Scopus)


We studied genetic variation in the second hypervariable region (HVR) of the G gene of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) from 1701 nasal swab samples collected from outpatients with acute respiratory infections at two general hospitals in the cities Yangon and Pyinmana in Myanmar from 2015 to 2018. HRSV genotypes were characterized using phylogenetic trees constructed using the maximum likelihood method. Time-scale phylogenetic tree analyses were performed using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method. In total, 244 (14.3%) samples were HRSV-positive and were classified as HRSV-A (n = 84, 34.4%), HRSV-B (n = 158, 64.8%), and co-detection of HRSV-A/HRSV-B (n = 2, 0.8%). HRSV epidemics occurred seasonally between July (1.9%, 15/785) and August (10.5%, 108/1028), with peak infections in September (35.8%, 149/416) and October (58.2%, 89/153). HRSV infection rate was higher in children ≥1 year of age than in those <1 year of age (70.5% vs. 29.5%). The most common HRSV symptoms in children were cough (80%–90%) and rhinorrhea (70%–100%). The predominant genotypes were ON1for HRSV-A (78%) and BA9 for HRSV-B (64%). Time to the most recent common ancestor was 2014 (95% highest posterior density [HPD], 2012–2015) for HRSV-A ON1 and 2009 (95% HPD, 2004–2012) for HRSV-B BA9. The mean evolutionary rate (substitutions/site/year) for HRSV-B (2.12 × 10−2, 95% HPD, 8.53 × 10−3–3.63 × 10−2) was slightly higher than that for HRSV-A (1.39 × 10−2, 95% HPD, 6.03 × 10−3–2.12 × 10−2). The estimated effective population size (diversity) for HRSV-A increased from 2015 to 2016 and declined in mid-2018, whereas HRSV-B diversity was constant in 2015 and 2016 and increased in mid-2017. In conclusion, the dominant HRSV-A and HRSV-B genotypes in Myanmar were ON1 and BA9, respectively, between 2015 and 2018. HRSV-B evolved slightly faster than HRSV-A and exhibited unique phylogenetic characteristics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104927
JournalInfection, Genetics and Evolution
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Sep


  • Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo methods
  • Evolutionary rate
  • HRSV
  • Molecular epidemiology
  • Second HVR of G gene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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