Evolution and diversity of the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily in plants

Yosuke Kawai, Eiichiro Ono, Masaharu Mizutani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

186 Citations (Scopus)


The 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (2OGD) superfamily is the second largest enzyme family in the plant genome, and its members are involved in various oxygenation/hydroxylation reactions. Despite their biochemical significance in metabolism, a systematic analysis of plant 2OGDs remains to be accomplished. We present a phylogenetic classification of 479 2OGDs in six plant models, ranging from green algae to angiosperms. These were classified into three classes - DOXA, DOXB and DOXC - based on amino acid sequence similarity. The DOXA class includes plant homologs of Escherichia coli AlkB, which is a prototype of 2OGD involved in the oxidative demethylation of alkylated nucleic acids and histones. The DOXB class is conserved across all plant taxa and is involved in proline 4-hydroxylation in cell wall protein synthesis. The DOXC class is involved in specialized metabolism of various phytochemicals, including phytohormones and flavonoids. The vast majority of 2OGDs from land plants were classified into the DOXC class, but only seven from Chlamydomonas, suggesting that this class has diversified during land plant evolution. Phylogenetic analysis assigned DOXC-class 2OGDs to 57 phylogenetic clades. 2OGD genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis were conserved among vascular plants, and those involved in flavonoid and ethylene biosynthesis were shared among seed plants. Several angiosperm-specific clades were found to be involved in various lineage-specific specialized metabolisms, but 31 of the 57 DOXC-class clades were only found in a single species. Therefore, the evolution and diversification of DOXC-class 2OGDs is partly responsible for the diversity and complexity of specialized metabolites in land plants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)328-343
Number of pages16
JournalPlant Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Apr


  • 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase
  • AlkB
  • P450
  • dioxygenase
  • evolution
  • flavonoid
  • gibberellin
  • prolyl 4-hydroxylase
  • specialized metabolism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Plant Science
  • Cell Biology


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