Evaluation of the severity of dementia using expectation control function

Eiji Ino-Oka, Hiroshi Sekino, Takashi Nakamura, Yasuaki Ohtaki, Hikaru Inooka, Koichi Sagawa, Jyunichiro Hashimoto, Yutaka Imai, Misako Okawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The results of an animal experiment without anesthesia suggested the presence of expectation control in which sympathetic nerve tone increases at rest immediately before behaviors to prepare for the subsequent behavior. We investigated whether such function is present in humans in their daily living and whether patients with dementia could be differentiated from healthy adults based on this finding. Using a Holter electrocardiograph with an acceleration sensor, electrocardiograms (ECG) and behavioral states were recorded. The total recorded ECG was divided by 20 sec, and high (HF, 0.15-0.4 Hz) and low (LF, 0.03-0.15 Hz) frequency components were extracted by frequency analysis of the RR interval. We used the HF component, L/H ratio, and RR interval as the index grade of parasympathetic/sympathetic nerve tone. The mean value of each parameter was calculated and compared between the time zone during which resting persisted for 1 min or more (3 intervals) and that during which behaviors occurred immediately after a 1-min rest. In 32 patients with dementia, Holter ECG and behaviors were serially recorded, and the time zone during which intentional behaviors occurred was detected. RR interval and HF component decreased and L/H increased. Increasing in sympathetic nerve tone was observed at rest condition immediately before intentional behaviors, suggesting a presence of expectation control function. The expectation control mechanism will present in humans and involved in this function by severity of dementia. This parameter may be useful for objectively evaluating the severity of dementia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)289-296
Number of pages8
JournalClinical and Experimental Hypertension
Issue number2-3
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Feb
Externally publishedYes


  • Autonomic nerve tone
  • Dementia
  • Expectation control function
  • Holter ECG

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Physiology


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