Evaluation of resource use in the household lighting sector in Malaysia considering land disturbances through mining activities

Shoki Kosai, Arnidah Binti Badin, Yang Qiu, Kazuyo Matsubae, Sangwon Suh, Eiji Yamasue

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This study evaluated resource use in the household lighting sector in Malaysia from the perspective of the lifecycle of the resources using the concept of total material requirement (TMR), which represents the scale of land disturbances caused by mining activities for resource exploitation. The TMR of incandescent bulbs (INC), compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs is evaluated during the production and operation stages. Then, the flow and stock of different lighting technologies in the Malaysian household sector during the period 2015–2050 is estimated considering two scenarios based on the rapidity of transition of lighting technologies in Malaysian society. Finally, the overall resource use of the household lighting sector in Malaysia during 2015–2050 is examined, considering the uncertainties of the lifespan of light bulbs and power generation. Although our findings indicate that the TMR of the LED production was the highest of all three types of light bulb, the high energy efficiency of LED bulbs makes the total TMR of LED the lowest among the three types of lighting evaluated after 700 operational hours. In the case of infrequently used light bulbs, the CFL may be superior to LED in the context of resource use. Survey results for Malaysia in 2020 indicated that only 13% of total obsolete household light bulbs are properly treated and recycled. It was also found that the quick transition of lighting technologies will avoid significant resource exploitation, and that the year 2025 is a milestone for natural resource use and recycling in Malaysia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105343
JournalResources, Conservation and Recycling
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Mar
Externally publishedYes


  • Land use
  • Natural resource use
  • Population balance model
  • Technological transition
  • Waste estimation
  • Weibull distribution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Economics and Econometrics


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