Evaluation of penetration and scattering components in conventional pinhole SPECT: Phantom studies using Monte Carlo simulation

Hossain M. Deloar, Hiroshi Watabe, Toshiyuki Aoi, Hidehiro Iida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


In quantitative pinhole SPECT, photon penetration through the collimator edges (penetration), and photon scattering by the object (object scatter) and collimator (collimator scatter) have not been investigated rigorously. Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate these three physical processes for different tungsten knife-edge pinhole collimators using uniform, hotspot and donut phantoms filled with 201Tl, 99mTc, 123I and 131I solutions. For the hotspot phantom, the penetration levels with respect to total counts for a 1 mm pinhole aperture were 78%, 28% and 23% for 131I, 123I and 99mTc, respectively. For a 2 mm aperture, these values were 65% for 131I, 16% for 123I and 12% for 99mTc. For all pinholes, 201Tl penetration was less than 4%. The evaluated scatter (from object and collimator) with a hotspot phantom for the 1 mm pinhole was 24%, 16%, 18% and 13% for 201Tl, 99mTc, 123I and 131I, respectively. Summation of the object and collimator scatter for the uniform phantom was approximately 20% higher than that for the hotspot phantom. Significant counts due to penetration and object and collimator scatter in the reconstructed image were observed inside the core of the donut phantom. The collimator scatter can be neglected for all isotopes used in this study except for 131I. Object scatter correction for all radionuclides used in this study is necessary and correction for the penetration contribution is necessary for all radionuclides but 201Tl.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)995-1008
Number of pages14
JournalPhysics in medicine and biology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2003 Apr 21
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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