A recently developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of linear alkyl benzenesulfonates (LAS) and long chain sulfophenyl carboxylates (SPCs) has been evaluated for its application in wastewater control analysis. This ELISA based on the use of polyclonal antibodies in an indirect format shows an IC50 of 28.1 ± 3.2 μg L -1 and a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.8 ± 0.6 μg L -1 in buffer. The assay uses antibodies raised through a pseudoheterologous immunization strategy using an equimolar mixture of two immunogens, N-(4-alkylphenyl)sulfonyl-3-aminopropanoic acid covalently coupled to keyhole limped hemocyanin (SFA-KLH) and sulfophenyl carboxylate 13C 13 coupled to KLH (13C13-SPC-KLH). The immunizing haptens have been designed to address recognition versus two different epitopes of the LAS molecule. To assess the performance of this immunoassay in complex real samples, a cross reactivity study was carried out, and the possible interference of other surfactants commonly detected in wastewater, including nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), and coconut fatty acid diethanol amides (CDEA), have been evaluated. Additionally, a study of the matrix effects of different types of wastewater was achieved. This ELISA has been evaluated and validated by measuring the LAS content of 22 samples collected from the influents and the effluents of six wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) located in Catalonia, Spain. A solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection (SPE-LC-MS) has been used as a validation method of the new ELISA test.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry