To investigate plant programmed cell death (PCD), we developed the model system using phytotoxin AAL, which is produced by necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici, and AAL-sensitive Nicotiana umbratica. We previously reported that ethylene (ET) signaling plays a pivotal role in AAL-triggered cell death (ACD). However, downstream signaling of ET to ACD remains unclear. Here, we show that the modulator of AAL cell death 1 (MACD1), which is an APETALA2/ET response factor (ERF) transcription factor, participates in ACD and acts downstream of ET signaling during ACD. MACD1 is a transcriptional activator and MACD1 overexpression plants showed earlier ACD induction than control plants, suggesting that MACD1 positively regulates factors affecting cell death. To investigate the role of MACD1 in PCD, we used Arabidopsis thaliana and a structural analog of AAL, fumonisin B1 (FB1). FB1-triggered cell death was compromised in ET signaling and erf102 mutants. The loh2 mutants showed sensitivity to AAL, and the loh2-1/erf102 double mutant compromised ACD, indicating that ERF102 also participates in ACD. To investigate the PCD-associated genes regulated by ERF102, we compared our microarray data using ERF102 overexpression plants with the database of upregulated genes by AAL treatment in loh2 mutants, and found genes under the control of ERF102 in ACD.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science