We have previously demonstrated that the importance of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) increases as the vessel size decreases and that endothelium-derived hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is an EDHF in animals and humans, for which endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is the major source. Recent studies have suggested the important role of the bone marrow (BM) in modulating cardiovascular and metabolic functions. We aimed to examine whether BM plays a role in modulating microvascular endothelial and metabolic functions in mice, and if so, to elucidate the mechanisms involved. Male eNOS(-/-) mice were transplanted with BM cells from wild-type (WT) or eNOS(-/-) mice and were maintained for 6 weeks. Endothelium-dependent relaxations and hyperpolarizations of mesenteric arteries to acetylcholine were reduced in eNOS(-/-) mice and were markedly improved when transplanted with WT-BM but not with eNOS(-/-)-BM. The enhanced component of endothelium-dependent relaxations was abolished by catalase, indicating that the improved responses were mediated by H(2)O(2). In contrast, no such beneficial effect was noted in the aorta. Reduced plasma adiponectin levels and impaired glucose tolerance in eNOS(-/-) mice were also improved by WT-BM transplantation. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in mesenteric arteries of eNOS(-/-) mice was significantly upregulated only when transplanted with WT-BM. Importantly, the beneficial effects of WT-BM transplantation were absent in eNOS(-/-)/adiponectin(-/-) or eNOS(-/-)/nNOS(-/-) mice. These results provide the first evidence that BM plays an important role in modulating microvascular endothelial and metabolic functions, for which adiponectin and nNOS may be involved.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine