Equating and linking of performance assessments

Eiji Muraki, Catherine M. Hombo, Yong Won Lee

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    34 Citations (Scopus)


    Performance assessments (PA) are used in various contexts of large-scale educational assessment. It is often desirable to compare examinee performance on different forms of an assessment or on the same forms administered at different times. An overview of linking methods applied to PA is presented: major issues and recent developments in linking PAs are discussed, three common linking designs (single group, randomly equivalent groups, and nonequivalent groups with anchor items) are compared, and two major linking methodologies [classical and item response theory (IRT)] are evaluated from the PA perspective. Also described are two classical equating methods (linear and equipercentile) and several IRT equating methods (item response function, vertical, common population, and multiple-group). Areas for future research are identified.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)325-337
    Number of pages13
    JournalApplied Psychological Measurement
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 2000 Dec


    • Item response theory
    • Large-scale assessment
    • National assessment of educational progress
    • Performance assessment
    • Test equating
    • Test linking

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
    • Psychology (miscellaneous)


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