Episodic and semantic memory after traumatic brain injury in a child

Yuko Meguro, Kyoko Suzuki, Takashi Tsukiura, Toshikatsu Fujii, Atsushi Yamadori, Mitsuya Kudoh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


In an early-life, a memory disturbance affects the learning and school record directly. Furthermore, it may cause the problem of maltreatment or adaptation difficulty for school life. We report a child amnesia caused by a traumatic brain injury when she was 9 years old. We examined her episodic and semantic memory. We developed 3-steps tasks of recognition and recall for the post-accident episodic memory. First, the examiner presented the patient with four words orally including a label of her episode, and asked her to choose one that she felt familiar with (the recognition of the episodic label). Second, if the word she selected was correct, she was required to recall the episode related to the word (the recall of the episode). Third, if she could not recall the episode herself correctly, she was required to choose a correct sentence about the episode (the recognition of the episode). She could not recall episodes correctly, but produced confabulation instead. She showed, however, good recognition of each episode. Furthermore, we performed recognition tests of time, person, and place about the same post-accident episodes, which were poor especially for time. In semantic memory tasks, we examined about kanji characters (ideogram) learned from the first grade to the sixth grade and mathematical knowledge learned from the second grade to the sixth grade at elementary school ('What centimenters is equal to one meter?' or 'Tell me the formula of the size of a circle.' etc). We found that she showed a retrograde impairment for about one year. For both episodic and semantic memory, she showed an anterograde impairment. Because of the anterograde amnesia she could not acquire new facts, and also showed paramnesia or confabulation. In a child with brain damage, neuropsychological assessment is important in predicting effect of rehabilitation and recovery of school performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)985-990
Number of pages6
JournalBrain and Nerve
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Episodic memory
  • Semantic memory
  • Social adaptation
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


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