We propose a productivity index for undesirable outputs such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions and measure it using data from 51 developed and developing countries over the period 1971-2000. About half of the countries exhibit the productivity growth. The changes in the productivity index are linked with their respective per capita income using a semi-parametric model. Our results show technological catch up of low-income countries. However, overall productivities both of SO2 and CO2 show somewhat different results.
- Environmental efficiency
- Semi-parametric estimation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law