## Abstract

Entropy production rate (EPR) is often effective to describe how a structure is self-organized in a nonequilibrium thermodynamic system. The "minimum EPR principle" is widely applicable to characterizing self-organized structures, but is sometimes disproved by observations of "maximum EPR states." Here we delineate a dual relation between the minimum and maximum principles; the mathematical representation of the duality is given by a Legendre transformation. For explicit formulation, we consider heat transport in the boundary layer of fusion plasma. The mechanism of bifurcation and hysteresis (which are the determining characteristics of the so-called H-mode, a self-organized state of reduced thermal conduction) is explained by multiple tangent lines to a pleated graph of an appropriate thermodynamic potential. In the nonlinear regime, we have to generalize Onsager's dissipation function. The generalized function is no longer equivalent to EPR; then EPR ceases to be the determinant of the operating point, and may take either minimum or maximum values depending on how the system is driven.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 066403 |

Journal | Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics |

Volume | 82 |

Issue number | 6 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2010 Dec 2 |

Externally published | Yes |

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Statistics and Probability
- Condensed Matter Physics