Enhancement of ATP production ameliorates motor and cognitive impairments in a mouse model of MPTP−induced Parkinson's disease

Hidaka Haga, Kazuya Matsuo, Yasushi Yabuki, Chen Zhang, Feng Han, Kohji Fukunaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Approximately 30–40% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit cognitive impairments. However, there are currently no clinically effective drugs for the treatment of cognitive impairment in patients with PD. Previous studies have suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction such as decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production triggers dopaminergic neurodegeneration in patients with PD and that mitochondria represent a potential target for the development of novel treatments for preventing PD. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the cognition-enhancing effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) and 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl) piperazine dihydrochloride (SA4503) in mice with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinsonism. PD model mice were generated via treatment with MPTP (25 mg/kg, i.p.) once a day for 5 consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the final injection of MPTP, mice were intraperitoneally injected with EP (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) or SA4503 (1 mg/kg) once a day for 4 weeks. Chronic administration of EP (100 mg/kg i.p.) or SA4503 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) improved both motor deficits and cognitive impairments in MPTP-treated mice. Furthermore, treatment with EP or SA4503 attenuated decreases in the levels of ATP and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc)/ventral tegmental area (VTA), striatum, and hippocampal CA1 region. Administration of EP or SA4503 protected the dopaminergic neurons from MPTP-induce toxicity and restored the dopamine levels in the striatum. Elevated 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- (4-HNE-) and nitrotyrosine-reactive protein levels induced by MPTP-treatment were suppressed by EP or SA4503 treatment in the SNpc-VTA, striatum, and hippocampal CA1 region. These observations suggest that EP and SA4503 attenuate cognitive impairments and motor dysfunction in mice with MPTP-induced PD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104492
JournalNeurochemistry International
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Oct


  • ATP
  • Cognitive function
  • Ethyl pyruvate
  • Neuroprotection
  • Parkinson's disease
  • SA4503

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Cell Biology


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