Biocompatibility of hemodialysis (HD) systems have been considerably improved. However, mortality and morbidity rates of patients have remained high, raising questions regarding the biocompatibility of current systems. In the present study, 70 patients on regular HD (51 males; mean age, 63 years; median duration of HD, 18 months) with high-performance membrane (polysulfone, 77%; polymethylmethacrylate, 23%) at Tohoku University Hospital were examined. Blood samples before and after HD, were subjected to measure apoptosis cells of white blood cells, plasma levels of the following molecules: myeloperoxidase (MPO), pentraxin 3 (PTX3), angiogenin, complements, and 17 cytokines. The main findings were as follows: significant decreases in leukocyte counts by dialysis, significant increases in apoptosis-positive leukocytes by dialysis (neutrophils and monocytes), and significant decrease in plasma angiogenin accompanying increase in plasma MPO and PTX3 levels, with no or only marginal changes in plasma pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and complement products by dialysis. The findings underlined the unsolved issue of bio-incompatibility of HD systems, and suggest the possible pathology of neutrophil apoptosis accompanying MPO release for the development of microinflammation in patients on HD.
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