We show that an imaging mode based on taking the difference between signals recorded from the bright field (forward scattering region) in atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy provides an enhancement of the detectability of light elements over existing techniques. In some instances this is an enhancement of the visibility of the light element columns relative to heavy element columns. In all cases explored it is an enhancement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the image at the light column site. The image formation mechanisms are explained and the technique is compared with earlier approaches. Experimental data, supported by simulation, are presented for imaging the oxygen columns in LaAlO3. Case studies looking at imaging hydrogen columns in YH2 and lithium columns in Al3Li are also explored through simulation, particularly with respect to the dependence on defocus, probe-forming aperture angle and detector collection aperture angles.
- Annular bright field (ABF)
- Atomic resolution imaging
- Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics