Enhanced bone-integration capability of alkali- and heat-treated nanopolymorphic titanium in micro-to-nanoscale hierarchy

Takeshi Ueno, Naoki Tsukimura, Masahiro Yamada, Takahiro Ogawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)


This study introduces nanopolymorphic features of alkali- and heat-treated titanium surfaces, comprising of tuft-like, plate-like, and nodular structures that are smaller than 100 nm and determines whether and how the addition of these nanofeatures to a microroughened titanium surface affects bone-implant integration. A comprehensive assessment of biomechanical, interfacial, and histological analyses in a rat model was performed for machined surfaces without microroughness, sandblasted-microroughened surfaces, and micro-nano hybrid surfaces created by sandblasting and alkali and heat treatment. The microroughened surface accelerated the establishment of implant biomechanical fixation at the early healing stage compared with the non-microroughened surface but did not increase the implant fixation at the late healing stage. The addition of the nanopolymorphic features to the microroughened surface further increased implant fixation throughout the healing time. The area of the new bone within 50. μm proximity of the implant surfaces, which was increased 2-3-fold using microroughened surfaces, was further increased 2-fold using nanopolymorphic surfaces. In contrast, the bone area in a 50-200. μm zone was not influenced by either microroughened or nanopolymorphic surfaces. The percentage of bone-implant contact, which was increased 4-5-fold, using microroughened surfaces, was further increased substantially by over 2-fold throughout the healing period. The percentage of soft tissue intervention between bone and implant surfaces, which was reduced to half by microroughened surfaces, was additionally reduced by the nanopolymorphic surfaces to between one-third and one-fourth, resulting in only 5-7% soft tissue intervention compared with 60-75% for the non-microroughened surface. Thus, using an exemplary alkali- and heat-treated nanopolymorphic surface, this study identified critical parameters necessary to describe the process and consequences of bone-implant integration, for which nanofeatures have specific and substantial roles beyond those of microfeatures. Nanofeature-enhanced osteoconductivity, which resulted in both the acceleration and elevation of bone-implant integration, has clearly been demonstrated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7297-7308
Number of pages12
Issue number30
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Oct
Externally publishedYes


  • Dental and orthopedic implant
  • Nanotechnology
  • Nanotuft
  • Osseointegration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Mechanics of Materials


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