Engulfment Behavior of Inclusions in High-Carbon Steel: Theoretical and Experimental Investigation

Yasuhiro Tanaka, Farshid Pahlevani, Karen Privat, Suk Chun Moon, Rian Dippenaar, Shin ya Kitamura, Veena Sahajwalla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Previous studies on inclusions behavior at the front of the solidifying steel shell have mainly focused on low-carbon steels. However, with the increasing applications of high-carbon steel in recent years because of its superior properties, it is crucial to understand this behavior in high-carbon steel. Most of the high-carbon steels are deoxidized by silicon, calcium treated, and contain higher sulfur percentage. Also, higher carbon content has a determining influence on the viscosity and surface tension, which will affect the inclusion behavior. In this study, we have investigated the engulfment behaviors of inclusions in front of the solidifying interface in high-carbon steels using concentric solidification method. The critical velocity of the growing shell, at which the particle is engulfed in the solidifying shell, instead of being pushed by this shell, was determined. The inclusion identified in this study is a bi-component form of CaO-SiO2-based oxide and CaS. It was revealed that engulfment behavior is strongly affected by convection of liquid steel that originates from carbon push out in high-carbon steels. This study provides new crucial information to produce high-carbon steel with fewer inclusions, which opens new application pathways for this emerging grade of steel.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2986-2997
Number of pages12
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Dec 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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