Energy location of Ce3+ 4f level and majority carrier type in Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce crystals studied by surface photovoltage spectroscopy

Mamoru Kitaura, Junpei Azuma, Manabu Ishizaki, Kei Kamada, Shunsuke Kurosawa, Shinta Watanabe, Akimasa Ohnishi, Kazuhiko Hara

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7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce (GAGG:Ce) was studied by surface photovoltage spectroscopy using the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy technique with synchrotron radiation and a laser source. The lowest Ce3+ 4f level is located below the conduction band minimum by 3.02 eV. This result is supported by the excitation spectrum for photo-stimulated luminescence and is compatible with the value predicted by the vacuum-referred binding energy scheme for GAGG:Ce. It is also found that GAGG:Ce is of the p-type. The information on the energy location of the Ce3+ 4f level and majority carrier type provides us with hints on how to improve the optical properties of GAGG:Ce for photonic device applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number251101
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Volume110
Issue number25
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jun 19

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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