Energy and supercritical fluids

Richard Lee Jr. Smith

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Global energy demand is expected to increase from 12.4 gigatons oil equivalent (Gtoe) in 2010 to 16.7 Gtoe by 2035. Energy systems will need to be redesigned or rethought to achieve the high efficiencies required to meet such energy demands. Energy systems that take advantage of the favorable thermo-physical properties of supercritical fluids can help raise efficiency and this chapter introduces several applications of energy systems that use supercritical fluids. These include (i) transcritical cycles for heating (ii) cryogenic exergy recovery for liquefied natural gas transport, (iii) geothermal and waste heat energy, (iv) refrigeration, (v) ultra-supercritical steam generators, (vi) biofuel synthesis, (vii) hydrothermal conversion of biomass and (viii) solvo-thermal processing of biomass with ionic liquids. Supercritical fluids offer unique technological advantages in their use for energy systems and increase cycle efficiencies and simplify chemical processing.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTopical Themes in Energy and Resources
Subtitle of host publicationA Cross-Disciplinary Education and Training Program for Environmental Leaders
PublisherSpringer Japan
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9784431553090
ISBN (Print)9784431553083
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jan 1


  • Biomass
  • Energy systems
  • Hydrogenation
  • Ionic liquids
  • Supercritical
  • Transcritical

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance(all)
  • Business, Management and Accounting(all)
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)


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