Energy and protein utilization by goats fed Italian ryegrass silage treated with molasses, urea, cellulase or cellulase + lactic acid bacteria

M. Islam, O. Enishi, A. Purnomoadi, K. Higuchi, N. Takusari, F. Terada

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18 Citations (Scopus)


The effects of different additives on ensiling of Italian ryegrass (IRG) silage and the resulting silages energy and nitrogen utilization and on methane (CH4) emission by Japanese native goats were evaluated. The silages were prepared from IRG harvested at late-bloom stage. Different treatments, 13.3% molasses, 4.0% urea, 0.02% cellulase and 0.02% cellulase + 0.02% lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were mixed with IRG prior to ensiling, and compared to a control with no preservative. Diets consisted of corn and soybean meal with one of the silages. Goats were allocated to examine one of the treated diets in two metabolism trials. Each trial period lasted 21 days, with a 7-day period of adjustment, followed by a 7-day preliminary period and a 7-day period of total collection of digestion and metabolism data. Methane emission was measured in open circuit respiration chambers over three consecutive days for each goat. Urea treated IRG had a higher (P < 0.05) volatile ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N/TN, 57%) compared to other silages. All treated silages had higher (P < 0.05) OM digestibilities except the cellulase treated silage. The cellulase + LAB treated silage diet had the lowest CH4 kg-1 digestible organic matter intake (DOMI). Goats consumed similar N in all diets except the urea treated silage diet. All treated silage diets produced higher (P < 0.01) urinary N than that of the control diet. The CP digestibilities were similar (P > 0.05) in all treated silage diets except the molasses treated silage diet, where CP digestibility was the lowest. Urea treated silage diet produced a higher digestible N, but had a negative retained N due to a higher (P < 0.001) urinary N. Ensiling IRG with the additives led to higher digestible nutrient availability, but mixing urea resulted in increased N losses through feed, feces and urine. This study showed that IRG harvested at late-bloom stage could be ensiled without any additive, but mixing molasses, cellulase and cellulase + LAB prior to ensiling increased the proportion of ME to DE and could reduce the CH4 emission rate per unit of DOM and retained energy (RE). Mixing urea increased the digestible OM and N intake, but increased the N excretion. Cellulase addition resulted in a decreased CH4 production rate. However, IRG treated with molasses could increase retained energy and N besides reducing CH4 and volatile N.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49-60
Number of pages12
JournalSmall Ruminant Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Energy
  • Goat
  • Italian ryegrass silage
  • Methane
  • Nitrogen utilization
  • Preservatives

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Animals
  • Animal Science and Zoology


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