Purpose To evaluate risk factors predicting death and complications of primary therapy for hepatic and gastric duodenal artery pseudoaneurysms following endovascular treatment (EVT) after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Materials and Methods Between April 2004 and December 2014, 28 patients (mean age, 64.7 y) with post-PD hemorrhage underwent EVT. Prevention of hepatic artery blockage via stents or side-holed catheter grafts was stratified in cases without a replaced hepatic artery. Mortality and major hepatic complications following EVT were evaluated according to age; sex; surgery–EVT interval; presence of portal vein stenosis, shock, and coagulopathy at EVT onset; and post-EVT angiographic findings. Results All hemorrhages were successfully treated with microcoils (n = 17; 61%), covered stents (n = 1; 3%), bare stent–assisted coil embolization (n = 5; 18%), or catheter grafts with coil embolization (n = 5; 18%). Hepatic arterial flow was observed after EVT in 18 patients (64%). Mortality and major hepatic complication rates were 28.6% and 32.1%, respectively. Hemorrhagic shock and coagulopathy at EVT onset (n = 8 each; odds ratio [OR], 27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1–235.7; P < .01) were significantly associated with mortality. Coagulopathy at EVT onset (adjusted OR [aOR], 48.1; 95% CI, 3.2–2,931), portal vein stenosis (n = 16; aOR, 16.9; 95% CI, 1.3–721.9), and no visualization of hepatopetal flow through the hepatic arteries (n = 10; aOR, 29.5; 95% CI, 2.1–1,477) were significantly associated with major hepatic complications. Conclusions EVT should be performed as soon as possible before the development of shock or coagulopathy. Hepatic arterial flow visualization decreases major hepatic complications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine