We report a very rare case of pulmonary chromomycosis caused by Scedosporium prolificans that developed after lung transplantation and was successfully treated with endobronchial topical amphotericin B instillation. The subject was a woman in her 50s with a history of bilateral lobar lung transplantation from living donors for idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. Eight years after the lung transplantation, chest radiography X-ray and computed tomography showed an abnormal shadow in the right lung. Bronchoscopic findings showed obstruction by a fungal component at the laterobasal bronchus B9. She was diagnosed with pulmonary chromomycosis after S. prolificans was detected in the bronchial aspirate. Systemic antifungal treatment with itraconazole was ineffective. Therefore, we administered topical amphotericin B weekly via endobronchial instillation and replaced oral itraconazole with voriconazole. The endobronchial procedure was safe and tolerable. Bronchial obstruction improved after three 3 instillations. We continued topical amphotericin B instillation once every 3 months for 2 years, and the abnormal shadow nearly disappeared. This case report describes infection by S. prolificans, which rarely becomes an etiologic agent in lung transplant patients, and shows that endobronchial topical amphotericin B instillation is a therapeutic option when systemic antifungal treatment is ineffective.
|Number of pages||4|
|Publication status||Published - 2018 Apr|
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