The effect of optical thickness in a bismuth water-window soft x-ray source is considered by comparing the emission from laser-produced plasmas of a 7.5% atomic density foam target and a solid-density target. The number of photons recorded in the 4 nm region was comparable for both targets at a plasma-initiating laser pulse duration of 6 ns. From experiments at different pulse durations of 150 ps and 6 ns, self-absorption (opacity) effects were found to be relatively small for bismuth plasmas as compared to those of tin, based on the same emission mechanism and which are used in 13.5 nm sources for extreme ultraviolet lithography.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics