Electronic structures of zinc and palladium tetraazaporphyrin derivatives controlled by fused benzo rings

Hideya Miwa, Kazuyuki Ishii, Nagao Kobayashi

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71 Citations (Scopus)


Zinc and palladium tetracyclic aromatic complexes lying structurally between tetraazaporphyrin (TAP) and phthalocyanine (Pc), that is, monobenzo-, adjacently dibenzo-, oppositely dibenzo-, and tribenzo-fused TAPs, have been prepared, and their electronic structures investigated by electronic absorption, magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), fluorescence, phosphorescence, and time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) spectroscopy, as well as cyclic voltammetry. The last-named indicated that the first oxidation potentials shift to more negative values with increasing number of the fused benzo rings, but also suggested that the first reduction potential apparently has no correlation with the size and symmetry of the π-conjugated systems. However, this latter behavior is reasonably interpreted by the finding that the effect of the fused benzo rings on destabilization of the LUMO depends on the orbital to which they are fused (i.e., whether it is an egx of egy or bital), since the LUMOs of TAP complexes are degenerate with D4h symmetry. The energy splitting of the LUMOs, that is, ALUMO, was evaluated experimentally for the first time by analyzing the relationship between the first reduction potential and the size and shape of the π-conjugated system. Electronic absorption and MCD measurements indicate that the lowest excited singlet states are split in the case of the low-symmetry TAP derivatives, although these excited states are degenerate for Pc and TAP with D4h symmetry. These energy splittings δEss correlate well with the δLUMO values. To investigate the electronic structures in the lowest excited triplet state, zerofield splitting (zfs) was analyzed by time-resolved EPR (TREPR) spectroscopy. The energy splitting in the lowest excited triplet state, ΔETT was quantitatively evaluated from the temperature dependence of the zfs or spin-orbit coupling of the Pd complexes. Consequently, it is demonstrated that ΔLUMO, ΔEss, and ΔE TT values exhibiting a mutually good relationship can be determined experimentally.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4422-4435
Number of pages14
JournalChemistry - A European Journal
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Sep 20


  • Cyolic voltammetry
  • EPR spectroscopy
  • Electronic structure
  • Luminescence
  • Macrocyclic ligands

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Organic Chemistry


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