We have investigated electron-trap centers in ZnO layers grown under different Zn O flux ratios by molecular-beam epitaxy. Frequency-dependent capacitance measurements show that ZnO layers grown under Zn-rich and stoichiometric flux conditions suffer from larger dispersion than a ZnO layer grown under an O -rich flux condition. Temperature-dependent capacitance measurements reveal that all the ZnO layers have shallow electron-trap centers ET1 and deep electron-trap centers ET2, while the Zn-rich ZnO layer has another shallow electron-trap center ET3 besides ET1 and ET2: the thermal activation energies of ET1, ET2, and ET3 are estimated to be 0.033-0.046, 0.12-0.15, and 0.065 eV, respectively. Moreover, it is exhibited that the trap density of ET2 is larger than those of ET1 or ET3 in all the cases and increases as the Zn O flux ratio increases. Consequently, it is suggested that the large dispersion effect observed in the Zn-rich and stoichiometric ZnO layers is ascribed to the large density of deep electron-trap center ET2.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)