Background: There is renewed interest in electric dipole strength distributions for a variety of reasons including the extraction of the dipole polarizability related to properties of the symmetry energy and a measure for the neutron skin thickness, understanding the structure of low-energy E1 strength in nuclei with neutron excess, and establishing the systematics of the isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR). Inelastic proton scattering at energies of a few hundred MeV and very forward angles including 0â has been established as a tool for the study of electric and magnetic dipole strength distributions in nuclei. Purpose: The present work aims at a systematic investigation of the electric and magnetic dipole strength distributions in the chain of stable even-mass tin isotopes. Methods: Inelastic proton scattering experiments were performed at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka, with a 295-MeV beam covering laboratory angles 0â-6â and excitation energies 6-22 MeV. Cross sections due to E1 and M1 excitations were extracted with a multipole decomposition analysis (MDA) and then converted to reduced transition probabilities with the "virtual photon method"for E1 and the "unit cross section method"for M1 excitations, respectively. Including a theory-aided correction for the high-excitation-energy region not covered experimentally, the electric dipole polarizability was determined from the E1 strength distributions. Results: Total photoabsorption cross sections derived from the E1 and M1 strength distributions show significant differences compared to those from previous (γ,xn) experiments in the energy region of the IVGDR. The widths of the IVGDR deduced from the present data with a Lorentz parametrization show an approximately constant value of about 4.5 MeV in contrast to the large variations between isotopes observed in previous work. The IVGDR centroid energies are in good correspondence to expectations from empirical systematics of their mass dependence. Furthermore, a study of the dependence of the IVGDR energies on bulk matter properties is presented. The E1 strengths below neutron threshold show fair agreement with results from (γ,γ) experiments on Sn112,116,120,124 in the energy region between 6 and 7 MeV, where also isoscalar E1 strength was found for Sn124. At higher excitation energies, large differences are observed, pointing to a different nature of the excited states with small ground-state branching ratios. The isovector spin-M1 strengths exhibit a broad distribution between 6 and 12 MeV in all studied nuclei. Conclusions: The present results contribute to the solution of a variety of nuclear structure problems including the systematics of the energy and width of the IVGDR, the structure of low-energy E1 strength in nuclei, new constraints to energy density functionals (EDFs) aiming at a systematic description of the dipole polarizability across the nuclear chart, from which properties of the symmetry energy can be derived, and the systematics of the isovector spin-M1 strength in heavy nuclei.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Nuclear and High Energy Physics