Efficient evaluation of em radiation associated with information leakage from cryptographic devices

Yu-Ichi Hayashi, Naofumi Homma, Takaaki Mizuki, Haruki Shimada, Takafumi Aoki, Hideaki Sone, Laurent Sauvage, Jean Luc Danger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents an efficient map generation technique for evaluating the intensity of electromagnetic (EM) radiation associated with information leakage for cryptographic devices at the printed circuit board level. First, we investigate the relation between the intensity of the overall EM radiation and the intensity of EM information leakage on a cryptographic device. For this purpose, we prepare a map of the magnetic field on the device by using an EM scanning system, after which we perform correlation electromagnetic analysis (CEMA) at all measurement points on the device, including points above the cryptographic module. The examined device is a standard evaluation board for cryptographic modules (side-channel attack standard evaluation board), where a cryptographic circuit is implemented on one of the field-programmable gate arrays on the board. With this experiment, we demonstrate that both an EM radiation map and an information leakage map can be generated simultaneously by scanning the board only once. We also confirm that the generated map is in good agreement with the corresponding map obtained from exhaustive CEMAs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6378448
Pages (from-to)555-563
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • Cryptographic modules
  • electromagnetic (EM) information leakage
  • hardware attacks
  • signal analysis
  • system security

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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