Vacancy-type defects in Mg-implanted GaN were probed by using a monoenergetic positron beam. Mg ions were implanted into GaN to obtain 0.3-μm-deep box profiles with Mg concentrations of 1 × 1019 cm−3. The major defect species in an as-implanted sample was determined to be Ga-vacancy related defects such as a complex between Ga and N vacancies. The sample was annealed under a nitrogen pressure of 1 GPa in a temperature range of 1000–1480 °C without a protective capping layer. Compared with the results for Mg-implanted GaN annealed with an AlN capping layer, the defect concentration was decreased by the cap-less annealing, suggesting that the surface of the sample was an effective sink for vacancies migrating toward the surface. Depth distributions of Mg after annealing above 1300 °C were influenced by the presence of residual vacancies at this temperature. Hydrogen atoms were unintentionally incorporated into the sample during annealing, and their diffusion properties were also affected by both vacancies and Mg.
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