Effects of Protoceratium reticulatum yessotoxin on feeding rates of Acartia hudsonica: A bioassay using artificial particles coated with purified toxin

Wataru Makino, Kotaro Ito, Yasukatsu Oshima, Jotaro Urabe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Paralytic shellfish toxins produced by dinoflagellates are known to deter copepod grazing. Dinoflagellate species, including Protoceratium reticulatum, also produce disulfated polyether yessotoxins that were previously referred to as diarrheic shellfish toxins. However, the role of yessotoxins in predator-prey relationships is not yet clear. In the present study, the effects of purified yessotoxin (YTX) on feeding activities of Acartia hudsonica (Copepoda, Calanoida) were experimentally investigated. Polystyrene fluorescent microspheres (10 μm in diameter) colored bright blue or yellow-green were coated with cell extracts of P. reticulatum that do not produce yessotoxins. The bright blue microspheres were further coated with YTX, and the yellow-green microspheres were used as the reference. The microspheres were then given to the copepods separately or in combination to measure clearance rates and feeding selectivity. A. hudsonica was found to feed on the yellow-green microspheres without YTX at twice the rate of the bright blue microspheres with YTX. We also confirmed that microsphere color per se did not affect the feeding rates. The bright blue microspheres adsorbed 1.8-43.3 pg of YTX per microsphere, which is similar to the cell-specific yessotoxin content of toxic P. reticulatum found in natural environments. These results suggest that production of yessotoxin is advantageous for P. reticulatum by deterring predation by copepods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)639-645
Number of pages7
JournalHarmful Algae
Volume7
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Aug 1

Keywords

  • Acartia hudsonica
  • Copepoda
  • Protoceratium reticulatum
  • Selective feeding
  • Yessotoxin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science
  • Plant Science

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