We examined the effects of increasing the recommended initial doses of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or of switching to combination therapy with both drugs, on diabetic nephropathy. Hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients with urinary albumin excretion (ACR) between 100 and 300 mg/g creatinine (Cre) were assigned to the following five groups in which an antihypertensive drug was administered at a recommended initial dose for 48 weeks, and then either the dose was doubled or an additional drugs was added to regimen for the following 48 weeks: N, nifedipine-CR (N) 20 mg/day (initial dose); T, ACEI temocapril (T) 2 mg/day; C, ARB candesartan (C) 4 mg/day; T+C, T first and then addition of C; C+T, C first and then addition of C. ACR decreased in the T (n=34), C (n=40), T+C (n=37) and C+T (n=35) groups, but not in the N group (n=18). However, the anti-proteinuric effect was less in the T than in the C, T+C or C+T groups, while no differences existed among the latter three. In each group, there were significant linear relationships between attained BP and ACR; however, the regression lines were shifted toward lower ACR level in the renin-angiotensin system-inhibition groups compared with the N group. These results indicate that an ACEI and/or ARB is superior to a CCB in retarding diabetic nephropathy, while the combination of low doses of ACEI and ARB has effects similar to those of high-dose ARB. Even among patients treated with an ACEI and/or ARB, lowering BP is important.
- Angiotensin receptor blockers
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
- Diabetic nephropathy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine