Effects of bacterial activity on estrogen removal in nitrifying activated sludge

Yong Xiang Ren, Kazunori Nakano, Munehiro Nomura, Nobuo Chiba, Osamu Nishimura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

106 Citations (Scopus)


The effects of bacterial activity on the degradation of estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) in nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) were studied with different substrates and organic loading rates (OLRs) and low temperature conditions. Heterotroph was shown to have utilized glucose prior to E1 for metabolism. The co-metabolism of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) dominated the degradation of E1, E2 and EE2 in NAS. The higher the organic loading, the higher the rate of organic matter transformation, with less ammonia oxidation and less degradation of E1, E2 and EE2. The degradation of E3 in NAS was shown to be largely due to heterotroph metabolism. On the basis of the difference of apparent activity between heterotroph and AOB at 4 °C, the process of estrogen degradation via the co-metabolism of AOB was able to be identified.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3089-3096
Number of pages8
JournalWater Research
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Jul


  • Bacterial activity
  • Co-metabolism
  • Estrogen
  • Nitrifying activated sludge

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Ecological Modelling
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution


Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of bacterial activity on estrogen removal in nitrifying activated sludge'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this