Effective photocatalytic removal of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products by elsmoreite/tungsten oxide@ZnS photocatalyst

Bożena Czech, Patrycja Zygmunt, Zukhra C. Kadirova, Kunio Yubuta, Mirabbos Hojamberdiev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In this study, elsmoreite/tungsten oxide is used to form a heterojunction with ZnS-containing industrial waste. The effect of the elsmoreite/tungsten oxide content on photocatalytic activity of ZnS using the different ratios of ZnS:Na2WO4 in the synthesis solution is estimated. The initial ZnS:Na2WO4 ratio leads to the formation of hexagonal WO3∙0.33H2O on the surface of ZnS. A further increase in the ZnS:Na2WO4 ratio results in the domination of cubic WO3∙0.5H2O over hexagonal WO3. The ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) diffuse reflectance spectra of elsmoreite/tungsten oxide@ZnS composite photocatalysts show that the absorption onset shifts monotonously towards lower wavelengths from 450 nm to 400 nm. The microrods of hexagonal WO3 and {111}-truncated submicron-sized crystals of WO3∙0.5H2O are grown on the ZnS surface. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results confirm the formation of a heterojunction between elsmoreite/tungsten oxide and ZnS. The photocatalytic activities of elsmoreite/tungsten oxide@ZnS composite photocatalysts are evaluated for the degradation of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs): metoprolol - Mt, triclosan - TCS, and caffeine – CAF both in single and in mixture solutions. The elsmoreite/tungsten oxide@ZnS photocatalysts degrade 50% of Mt, 70% TCS, and 60% CAF in single solution and 35% of Mt, 20% of CAF, and 20% of TCS in mixture solution. Hydrated Mt and TCS are preferably adsorbed on the surface of WO3∙0.5H2O (111), and CAF has better affinity to the surface of WO3. The elsmoreite/tungsten oxide@ZnS photocatalysts show a good reusability. Hydroxyl radicals (OH) and photogenerated holes (h+) are involved in the photocatalytic removal of Mt, while only h+ is involved in the photocatalytic removal of TCS. Interestingly, none of the above-mentioned species is involved in the photocatalytic removal of CAF. Also, nontoxic CAF is mainly degraded into intermediates with higher toxicity. The toxicity of the photocatalytically treated model wastewater in the mixture solution, tested with Vibrio fischeri, is much lower than that in the single solution.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110870
JournalJournal of Environmental Management
Volume270
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Sep 15

Keywords

  • Elsmoreite
  • Heterostructure
  • PPCPs
  • Photocatalysis
  • WO
  • ZnS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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