In this paper, the Leidenfrost phenomena and water mist cooling are described from the viewpoint of surface conditions of heat transfer interfaces. The effect of nano-scale structures on boiling heat transfer phenomena is researched. It is clarified that the Leidenfrost phenomena on a substrate with adhered nano-scale carbons (nano carbons) are different from the one in case of a normal heat transfer interface. The photographs taken by a high-speed camera show that the boiling on a substrate with nano carbons takes the different form in comparison with the one on a normal interface. In case that the surface temperature of a copper substrate is about 140 degree C, a water droplet has a neck of water between itself and the substrate with nano carbons. On the other hand, the nucleate boiling is observed on a normal copper substrate. From the relation between evaporation time and initial surface temperature, heat transfer enhancement can be achieved under the nucleate boiling conditions. Also, the critical heat flux of water mist cooling could be enhanced by adhering nano carbons on heat-transfer interfaces. It is supposed that the wettability between water and copper is improved by the nano carbons.