(All-E) geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases have been classified into three types based on the characteristic sequences around the first aspartate rich motif, which is highly conserved among the enzymes. In type I geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases, which consist of archaeal enzymes, a bulky amino acid residue at the 5th position upstream from the motif plays a main role in the product determination, by blocking further elongation of prenyl chain as the bottom of the reaction cavity. On the other hand, type III geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases, which consist of the enzymes from eukaryotes except for plants, use a bulky amino acid residue at the 2nd position upstream from the conserved G(Q/E) motif for product chain-length determination. Thus we introduced mutations into the region upstream from the G(Q/E) motif of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases of the three different types to confirm the importance of the region for the product chain-length determination. The results of the mutational analyses indicated that not only the 2nd but also the 3rd position upstream from the G(Q/E) motif is involved in the product chain-length determination mechanism in types I and III geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases, while the amino acid substitution in this region did not affect the chain-length of the products of type II geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, which consist of the enzymes from bacteria and plants. The region upstream from the G(Q/E) motif possibly contributes to the product determination in the wide range of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases, as well as that around the first aspartate rich motif.
- Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
- Product determination
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology