Economic evaluation of sewage treatment processes in India

Nobuyuki Sato, Tsutomu Okubo, Takashi Onodera, Lalit K. Agrawal, Akiyoshi Ohashi, Hideki Harada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


This paper evaluates the total annual cost including capital and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs for the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and waste stabilization pond (WSP) systems operated in India. It also compares UASB and WSP systems with the activated sludge process (ASP) and biological aerated filter (BAF) systems in terms of total annual cost and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal cost by assuming various annual interest rates and land prices. It was found that the relationship between capital and O&M costs per unit size of a UASB or WSP system and its treatment capacity can be established by a first-order equation. The relation between the cost of organic removal and capital or O&M cost for various sewage treatment systems at various annual interest rates revealed that, for the Indian context, UASB could be the most suitable option in terms of expenses and treatment efficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)447-460
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Environmental Management
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Sep 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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