During cerebral ischemia blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is a critical event leading to vasogenic edema and secondary brain injury. Gelatinases A and B are matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) able to open the BBB. The current study analyzes by zymography the early gelatinases expression and activation during permanent ischemia in mice (n = 15). ProMMP-9 expression was significantly (P < 0.001) increased in ischemic regions compared with corresponding contralateral regions after 2 hours of ischemia (mean 694.7 arbitrary units [AU], SD ± 238.4 versus mean 107.6 AU, SD ± 15.6) and remained elevated until 24 hours (mean 745.7 AU, SD ± 157.4). Moreover, activated MMP-9 was observed 4 hours after the initiation of ischemia. At the same time as the appearance of activated MMP-9, we detected by the Evan's blue extravasation method a clear increase of BBB permeability. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 was not modified during permanent ischemia at any time. The ProMMP-2 was significantly (P < 0.05) increased only after 24 hours of permanent ischemia (mean 213.2 AU, SD ±+ 60.6 versus mean 94.6 AU. SD ± 13.3), and no activated form was observed. The appearance of activated MMP-9 after 4 hours of ischemia in correlation with BBB permeability alterations suggests that MMP-9 may play an active role in early vasogenic edema development after stroke.
- Vasogenic edema
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine