Objectives: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibition is a new therapeutic strategy for type 2 diabetic patients. DPP-4 has been reported to enhance inflammation. However, the effect of DPP-4 inhibition on inflammation remains unknown. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a strong inducer of inflammation and osteoclast formation. In this study, we investigated in vivo effects of DPP-4 inhibition on LPS-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption, as well as in vitro effects of DPP-4 inhibition on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and TNF-α-induced osteoclastogenesis. Methods: LPS with or without a DPP-4 inhibitor was subcutaneously injected into mouse calvaria for 5 days. Histological sections of calvaria were stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and osteoclast numbers were determined. The ratio of calvaria bone resorption was evaluated via microfocal computed tomography reconstruction images. Results: Osteoclast number and bone resorption were significantly lower in mice that underwent LPS and DPP-4 inhibitor co-administration than in those that underwent LPS administration alone. Moreover, RANKL, TNF-α and M-CSF expression was reduced in the LPS and DPP-4 inhibitor co-administration group. In vitro, there were no direct effects of DPP-4 inhibitor or DPP-4 on RANKL- and TNF-α-induced osteoclastogenesis, or on LPS-induced RANKL expression in stromal cells. Nevertheless, macrophages from LPS and DPP-4 inhibitor co-administered mice exhibited lower TNF-α expression than macrophages from LPS-only mice. Notably, TNF-α expression was not reduced in LPS and DPP-4 inhibitor co-treated macrophages in vitro, compared with macrophages treated with LPS alone.
- DPP-4 inhibitor
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