Aqueous mixtures of dipolar aprotic solvents (acetonitrile, γ-valerolactone, γ-butyrolactone, tetrahydrofuran, 1,4-dioxane, acetone, pyridine, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, and dimethyl sulfoxide) show synergism in microscopic polarity and extrema in macroscopic viscosity (η) and molar excess enthalpy (HE) in water-rich compositions that correlate with solvent functional group electrostatic basicity (β2H). Microscopic polarities of aqueous solvent mixtures were estimated by measuring the spectral shift (λmax) of 4-nitroaniline with UV-vis spectroscopy at 25°C. Dynamic viscosities (η) and densities were measured for eight aqueous dipolar aprotic mixtures over the full range of compositions at (25 to 45) °C. The λmax, η, and HE values of the aqueous mixtures showed a linear trend with increasing electrostatic basicity of the solvent functional groups that is attributed to the size and strength of the hydration shell of water. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed for 1:3 complexes (solvent: (H2O)3) and it was found that aqueous mixtures with high basicity have high binding energies and short hydrogen bonding distances implying that the size and strength of the hydration shell of water is proportional to functional group basicity. Consideration of functional group basicity of dipolar aprotic solvents allows one to relate synergism in microscopic polarity to extrema in macroscopic properties for a wide range of aqueous dipolar aprotic solvent mixtures. (Chemical Equation Presented).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry