A detailed observation was conducted on Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in the composts derived from seafood processing by-product, garbage, swine manure and sewage sludge, respectively, as well as in amended farmlands. All elements were at lower levels of total contents but a higher percentage of water-soluble and exchangeable forms in composted seafood processing byproduct and composted garbage than in composted swine manure and composted sewage sludge. Total contents increased in the order: composted seafood processing by-product ≈ composted garbage < composted swine manure < composted sewage sludge. The applications of composted seafood processing by-product and composted garbage have neither caused Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn accumulation nor changed their distribution in soils; while the application of composted swine manure has largely increased Cu and Zn contents in soils, mainly in organic matter-bound form, and that of composted sewage sludge increased Mn, Cu and Zn in soils mainly in carbonate-bond and Fe-Mn oxides-bound ones. Fe is an exception, its total contents in soils decreased with the applications of composts except for composted garbage. Also, the rainfall and irrigation were another two main factors that affected available elements in soils.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry
- Water Science and Technology
- Waste Management and Disposal