Distribution of norovirus and sapovirus genotypes with emergence of NoV GII.P16/GII.2 recombinant strains in Chiang Mai, Thailand

Kanittapon Supadej, Pattara Khamrin, Kattareeya Kumthip, Rungnapa Malasao, Natthawan Chaimongkol, Mayuko Saito, Hitoshi Oshitani, Hiroshi Ushijima, Niwat Maneekarn

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25 Citations (Scopus)


Norovirus (NoV) and sapovirus (SaV) are recognized as the causative agents of acute gastroenteritis, and NoV is one of the leading pathogens reported worldwide. This study reports on the distribution of NoV and SaV genotypes in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Chiang Mai, Thailand, from January 2015 to February 2017. From a total of 843 stool samples, 170 (20.2%) and 16 (1.9%) were identified as having NoV and SaV infections, respectively. Two samples (0.2%) were positive for both NoV and SaV. Of these, NoV GII.4 (57.2%) was the dominant genotype, followed by GII.2, GII.3, GII.17, GII.6, GII.7, GII.13, GII.14, GII.15, GII.21, GI.6, and GI.5. Among the NoV GII.4 variants, Sydney 2012 was the dominant variant during the period 2015-2016, while the other variants detected in this study were Asia 2003 and New Orleans 2009. Interestingly, an increase of NoV GII.2 was observed in 2016 and 2017. Characterization of partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and VP1 nucleotide sequences of GII.2 strains revealed that more than half of the GII.2 strains circulating in 2016 and 2017 were recombinant strains of GII.P16/GII.2. For SaV, the majority of strains belonged to GI.1 (55.6%) and GI.2 (33.3%), while GII.5 accounted for 11.1%. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the diversity of NoV and SaV, and the emergence of NoV GII.P16/GII.2 recombinant strains in 2016 and 2017 in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-224
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Medical Virology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Feb 1


  • Thailand
  • diarrhea
  • norovirus
  • recombination
  • sapovirus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases


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