Distribution of Liposomes into Brain and Rat Brain Tumor Models by Convection-Enhanced Delivery Monitored with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Ryuta Saito, John R. Bringas, Tracy R. McKnight, Michael F. Wendland, Christoph Mamot, Daryl C. Drummond, Dmitri B. Kirpotin, John W. Park, Mitchel S. Berger, Krys S. Bankiewicz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

205 Citations (Scopus)


Although liposomes have been used as a vehicle for delivery of therapeutic agents in oncology, their efficacy in targeting brain tumors has been limited due to poor penetration through the blood-brain barrier. Because convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of liposomes may improve the therapeutic index for targeting brain tumors, we conducted a three-stage study: stage 1 established the feasibility of using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm adequate liposomal distribution within targeted regions in normal rat brain. Liposomes colabeled with gadolinium (Gd) and a fluorescent indicator, 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′ -tetramethylindocarbocyanine-5,5′-disulfonic acid [DiI-DS; formally DilC18(3)-DS], were administered by CED into striatal regions. The minimum concentration of Gd needed for monitoring, correlation of infused volume with distribution volume, clearance of infused liposome containing Gd and DiI-DS (Lip/Gd/DiI-DS), and potential local toxicity were evaluated. After determination of adequate conditions for MRI detection in normal brain, stage 2 evaluated the feasibility of in vivo MRI monitoring of liposomal distribution in C6 and 9L-2 rat glioma models. In both models, the distribution of Lip/Gd/DiI-DS covering the tumor mass was well defined and monitored with MRI. Stage 3 was designed to develop a clinically relevant treatment strategy in the 9L-2 model by infusing liposome containing Gd (Lip/Gd), prepared in the same size as Lip/Gd/DiI-DS, with Doxil, a liposomal drug of similar size used to treat several cancers. MRI detection of Lip/Gd coadministered with Doxil provided optimum CED parameters for complete coverage of 9L-2 tumors. By permitting in vivo monitoring of therapeutic distribution in brain tumors, this technique optimizes local drug delivery and may provide a basis for clinical applications in the treatment of malignant glioma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2572-2579
Number of pages8
JournalCancer Research
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Apr 1
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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