Discovery of novel [Arg49]phospholipase A2 isozymes from Protobothrops elegans venom and regional evolution of Crotalinae snake venom phospholipase A2 isozymes in the southwestern islands of Japan and Taiwan

Takahito Chijiwa, Emi Tokunaga, Ryo Ikeda, Koki Terada, Tomohisa Ogawa, Naoko Oda-Ueda, Shosaku Hattori, Masatoshi Nozaki, Motonori Ohno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Protobothrops (formerly Trimeresurus) elegans, a Crotalinae snake, inhabits Ishigaki and Iriomote islands of the Sakishima Islands of Japan which are located between Okinawa island of Japan and Taiwan. Two phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isozymes were purified to homogeneity from P. elegans venom and sequenced. This led to a discovery of novel PLA2 isozymes with Arg at position 49, that is, [Arg49]PLA2 forms, named PeBP(R)-I and PeBP(R)-II. They are polymorphic at position 3, Val for PeBP(R)-I and Ile for PeBP(R)-II. The cDNAs encoding PeBP(R)-I and PeBP(R)-II were cloned. The cDNA encoding an [Asp49]PLA2 named PePLA2 was also obtained. In contrast to PLA2 isozymes from Protobothrops genus with 122 amino acid residues, PeBP(R)-I and PeBP(R)-II are composed of 121 amino acid residues due to lack of Pro at position 90. They exhibited necrotic and edema-inducing activities but no hemorrhagic activity was detected. A phylogenetic tree constructed for venom PLA2 isozymes of Protobothrops genus and of related genera in the southwestern islands of Japan and Taiwan revealed that PeBP(R)-I and PeBP(R)-II of P. elegans are evolutionarily much closer to PmK49PLA2, a [Lys49]PLA2, from P. mucrosquamatus (Taiwan) than BPI and BPII, both [Lys49]PLA2 forms, from P. flavoviridis (Amami-Oshima and Tokunoshima islands of Japan). Such evolutionary relationships are also seen in neutral [Asp49]PLA2 isozymes from the three Protobothrops species. Thus, P. elegans is the species much closer to P. mucrosquamatus than P. flavoviridis. Their evolutionary distances seem to be well related to geological history of the islands where they have lived. In addition, it was clearly noted that Ovophis okinavensis (Amami-Oshima), which had formerly belonged to the Trimeresurus genus, and Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Taiwan) are the species fairly distant from Protobothrops genus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)672-682
Number of pages11
JournalToxicon
Volume48
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Nov 1

Keywords

  • Amino acid sequence
  • Evolution
  • Phospholipase A
  • Phylogeny
  • Protobothrops elegans venom
  • Purification
  • cDNA cloning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

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