### Abstract

In this study, direct numerical simulation of the flow around a rotating sphere at high Mach and low Reynolds numbers is conducted to investigate the effects of rotation rate and Mach number upon aerodynamic force coefficients and wake structures. The simulation is carried out by solving the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A free-stream Reynolds number (based on the free-stream velocity, density and viscosity coefficient and the diameter of the sphere) is set to be between 100 and 300, the free-stream Mach number is set to be between 0.2 and 2.0, and the dimensionless rotation rate defined by the ratio of the free-stream and surface velocities above the equator is set between 0.0 and 1.0. Thus, we have clarified the following points: (1) as free-stream Mach number increased, the increment of the lift coefficient due to rotation was reduced; (2) under subsonic conditions, the drag coefficient increased with increase of the rotation rate, whereas under supersonic conditions, the increment of the drag coefficient was reduced with increasing Mach number; and (3) the mode of the wake structure becomes low-Reynolds-number-like as the Mach number is increased.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 878-906 |

Number of pages | 29 |

Journal | Journal of Fluid Mechanics |

Volume | 857 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2018 Jan 1 |

### Keywords

- aerodynamics
- high-speed flow
- low-Reynolds-number flows

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering

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## Cite this

*Journal of Fluid Mechanics*,

*857*, 878-906. https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2018.756