X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is typically performed using zero-dimensional detectors. This makes data acquisition in synchrotron facilities time consuming. Here, we report the first direct imaging of the X-ray fluorescence hologram of a Fe3O4 sample using a 2D hybrid detector. The apparatus, data acquisition and data processing are described here. The recorded Fe Kα hologram agreed well with simulations, and the atomic images reconstructed using the SPEA-L1 algorithm showed agreement with the expected Fe and O positions. Furthermore, by tuning the incident X-ray energy, fluorescence from the Fe3+ cations can be suppressed, allowing the imaging of Fe Kα holograms from Fe2.5+ cations. The valence-sensitivity of the holograms was confirmed by the appearance of different sets of Kossel lines in the hologram, and in the atomic reconstructions. Reconstructions from the holograms from Fe2.5+ cations show that these emitters are located on octahedral sites, and the reconstruction from the Fe3+ holograms shows emitters on the tetrahedral sites. These results demonstrate that the new 2D hybrid detector-based apparatus is a good XFH alternative that can be used to clarify structures of multi-valence materials. Further applications to radiation-damage sensitive samples, and even time-resolved XFH experiments can also be achieved using this new XFH apparatus.
- X-ray fluorescence holography
- atomic resolution holography
- valence selectivity
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics