Direct evidence for pitavastatin induced chromatin structure change in the KLF4 gene in endothelial cells

Takashi Maejima, Tsuyoshi Inoue, Yasuharu Kanki, Takahide Kohro, Guoliang Li, Yoshihiro Ohta, Hiroshi Kimura, Mika Kobayashi, Akashi Taguchi, Shuichi Tsutsumi, Hiroko Iwanari, Shogo Yamamoto, Hirofumi Aruga, Shoulian Dong, Junko F. Stevens, Huay Mei Poh, Kazuki Yamamoto, Takeshi Kawamura, Imari Mimura, Jun Ichi SuehiroAkira Sugiyama, Kiyomi Kaneki, Haruki Shibata, Yasunobu Yoshinaka, Takeshi Doi, Akimune Asanuma, Sohei Tanabe, Toshiya Tanaka, Takashi Minami, Takao Hamakubo, Juro Sakai, Naohito Nozaki, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Masaomi Nangaku, Xiaoan Ruan, Hideyuki Tanabe, Yijun Ruan, Sigeo Ihara, Akira Endo, Tatsuhiko Kodama, Youichiro Wada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Statins exert atheroprotective effects through the induction of specific transcriptional factors in multiple organs. In endothelial cells, statin-dependent atheroprotective gene up-regulation is mediated by Kruppel-like factor (KLF) family transcription factors. To dissect the mechanism of gene regulation, we sought to determine molecular targets by performing microarray analyses of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with pitavastatin, and KLF4 was determined to be the most highly induced gene. In addition, it was revealed that the atheroprotective genes induced with pitavastatin, such as nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and thrombomodulin (THBD), were suppressed by KLF4 knockdown. Myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) family activation is reported to be involved in pitavastatin-dependent KLF4 induction. We focused on MEF2C among the MEF2 family members and identified a novel functional MEF2C binding site 148 kb upstream of the KLF4 gene by chromatin immunoprecipitation along with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) followed by luciferase assay. By applying whole genome and quantitative chromatin conformation analysis {chromatin interaction analysis with paired end tag sequencing (ChIA-PET), and real time chromosome conformation capture (3C) assay}, we observed that the MEF2Cbound enhancer and transcription start site (TSS) of KLF4 came into closer spatial proximity by pitavastatin treatment. 3DFluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging supported the conformational change in individual cells. Taken together, dynamic chromatin conformation change was shown to mediate pitavastatin-responsive gene induction in endothelial cells.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere96005
JournalPloS one
Volume9
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014 May 5
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

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