Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ligands thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have recently been reported to be anti-hypertensive and anti-atherosclerotic. We have previously shown that one of the TZDs troglitazone significantly suppressed the transcription of both thromboxane receptor (TXR) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) genes in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by activating PPAR-γ. In the present study, we compared the effects of troglitazone and other TZDs on the transcription of these genes. TXR and AT1R mRNAs in rat VSMCs were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Luciferase chimeric constructs containing either the 989-bp rat TXR gene promoter or the 1,969-bp rat AT1R gene promoter were transiently transfected into VSMCs. The cells were incubated with troglitazone, RS-1455 (a derivative of troglitazone which does not contain the hindered phenol resembling α-tocopherol), pioglitazone, or rosiglitazone for 12 h before harvesting. mRNA expression levels of TXR and AT1R were significantly decreased by troglitazone in contrast to rosiglitazone. TXR gene and AT1R gene transcription was significantly suppressed by troglitazone in a dose-dependent manner, while RS-1455 was less potent. Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone weakly suppressed the transcription of both genes in a manner almost similar to RS-1455. We have shown that troglitazone suppresses transcription of both the TXR and AT1R genes more potently than other TZDs. The structure of troglitazone and RS-1455 is identical except the hindered phenol, which is recently recognized to function as an antioxidant. Moreover, we have shown that the potency for activating PPAR-γ is almost identical between troglitazone and RS-1455. We therefore speculate that the strong transcriptional suppression of the TXR and AT1R genes by troglitazone may be mediated in part by its antioxidant effect.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine