Background and Aims: Cancer recurrence is observed in some patients without additional radical surgery after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) that does not fulfill the curability criteria for early gastric cancer (EGC), categorized as “noncurative resection” or “curability C-2” in the guidelines. However, time to cancer recurrence is different in such patients. Thus, we aimed to identify the risk factors of early and late cancer recurrences in these patients. Methods: Between 2000 and 2011, this multicenter study analyzed 905 patients who were followed up without additional radical surgery after ESD for EGC categorized as curability C-2. We evaluated the risk factors for early and late cancer recurrences, separately, after ESD. The cut-off value was defined at 2 years. Results: Time to cancer recurrence in the enrolled patients showed a bimodal pattern, and the 5-year cancer recurrence rate was 3.2%. Multivariate Cox analyses revealed that lymphatic invasion (hazard ratio [HR], 8.56; P =.003) was the sole independent risk factor for early cancer recurrence. Regarding late cancer recurrence, vascular invasion (HR, 4.50; P =.039) was an independent risk factor, and lymphatic invasion tended to be a risk factor (HR, 3.63; P =.069). Conclusions: This multicenter study with a large cohort demonstrated that lymphatic invasion is mainly associated with early cancer recurrence; however, vascular invasion was a risk factor only for late recurrence in patients without additional treatment after ESD for EGC categorized as curability C-2. This finding may contribute to decision making for treatment strategies after ESD, especially for patients with a relatively short life expectancy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging