Background Limited research exists on how dietary pattern (DP) influences pregnant women’s health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This study aimed to identify DPs in a cohort of 92,448 pregnant Japanese women using fixed data from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS) to investigate the associations of DP with HRQOL. Methods During the first trimester, DPs were assessed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), and HRQOL was assessed using the 8-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-8). DPs such as Western, Japanese and Unbalanced DP were identified through principal component analysis (PCA). Multivariable logistic model analysis was used to assess the associations between DP and HRQOL as good or poor. Results We found a significant association between poor mental HRQOL in the univariate analysis for the Western DP (p = 0.014). However, this association was not significant in the multivariate analysis adjusted for basic confounders (p = 0.078). Western DP was not highly associated with poor physical HRQOL (from low-medium to high levels of intake; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.87–0.88, all p≦0.001, when comparing highest to lowest intake levels). A high intake of the Japanese DP was significantly associated with poor mental HRQOL and physical HRQOL (adjusted OR 1.20, p<0.0001 and adjusted OR 1.12, p = 0.005, respectively). A medium-high intake of the Unbalanced DP was not highly associated with poor physical HRQOL (adjusted OR 0.93, p = 0.048) but with poor mental HRQOL (adjusted OR 1.29, p<0.0001). Conclusion This is the first known prospective study to establish an association between DP and HRQOL in pregnant women. We hope that our findings will help in the field of nutritional science.
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