Previously, we identified three gene loci, Dic1, Dic2, and Dic3, that confer high-osmolarity adaptation and dicarboximide/phenylpyrrole fungicide sensitivity in Cochliobolus heterostrophus. Dic1 encoded a group III histidine kinase, but the other genes were not characterized. In the present study, we revealed that both Dic2 and Dic3 are involved in the Skn7 pathway. Dic2 encoded an Skn7-type response regulator, ChSkn7. Strain N4502 contained D359N in the response regulator domain of ChSkn7. Strain E4503 contained a deletion of 50 amino acids in the DNA-binding domain. Strain N4507 was a null mutant of the ChSkn7 gene. All of the dic2 mutant strains showed similar levels of sensitivity to high osmolarity and similar levels of resistance to fungicides. These results strongly suggested that both the DNA-binding domain and response regulator domain are essential for Skn7 function in osmotic adaptation and fungicide sensitivity. A western blot analysis revealed that Dic3 is not involved in the regulation of Hog1-type MAPKs. The Chssk1/dic3 double mutant strains clearly showed greater resistance to fungicides than the single mutant strains. An additive effect was also observed in the high-osmolarity experiments. On the other hand, the dic3/dic2 double mutant strains did not show higher levels of resistance to fungicides and greater sensitivity to KCl than the single mutant strains. These results strongly suggested that the dic3 locus confer high-osmolarity adaptation and fungicide sensitivity independently from Ssk1-Hog1 pathway, but not the Skn7 pathway. Moreover, the dic3 strain and all dic2 strains showed similar levels of sensitivity to high-osmolarity stress and similar levels of resistance to fungicides, suggesting Dic3 to have an essential role in the Skn7 pathway. Our results provide new insight into the functions of the Skn7 pathway in filamentous fungi.
- Osmotic stress
- Two-component signaling system
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Plant Science