Diagnostic thresholds for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring based on 10-year cardiovascular risk

Masahiro Kikuya, Tine W. Hansen, Lutgarde Thijs, Kristina Björklund-Bodegård, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Tom Richart, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Lars Lind, Hans Ibsen, Yutaka Imai, Jan A. Staessen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

240 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND - Current diagnostic thresholds for ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) mainly rely on statistical parameters derived from reference populations. We determined an outcome-driven reference frame for ABP measurement. METHODS AND RESULTS - We performed 24-hour ABP monitoring in 5682 participants (mean age 59.0 years; 43.3% women) enrolled in prospective population studies in Copenhagen, Denmark; Noorderkempen, Belgium; Ohasama, Japan; and Uppsala, Sweden. In multivariate analyses, we determined ABP thresholds, which yielded 10-year cardiovascular risks similar to those associated with optimal (120/80 mm Hg), normal (130/85 mm Hg), and high (140/90 mm Hg) blood pressure on office measurement. Over 9.7 years (median), 814 cardiovascular end points occurred, including 377 strokes and 435 cardiac events. Systolic/diastolic thresholds for optimal ABP were 116.8/74.2 mm Hg for 24 hours, 121.6/78.9 mm Hg for daytime, and 100.9/65.3 mm Hg for nighttime. Corresponding thresholds for normal ABP were 123.9/76.8, 129.9/82.6, and 110.2/68.1 mm Hg, respectively, and those for ambulatory hypertension were 131.0/79.4, 138.2/86.4, and 119.5/70.8 mm Hg. After rounding, approximate thresholds for optimal ABP amounted to 115/75 mm Hg for 24 hours, 120/80 mm Hg for daytime, and 100/65 mm Hg for nighttime. Rounded thresholds for normal ABP were 125/75, 130/85, and 110/70 mm Hg, respectively, and those for ambulatory hypertension were 130/80, 140/85, and 120/70 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS - Population-based outcome-driven thresholds for optimal and normal ABP are lower than those currently proposed by hypertension guidelines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2145-2152
Number of pages8
JournalCirculation
Volume115
Issue number16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Apr
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Blood pressure
  • Blood pressure monitoring, ambulatory
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Epidemiology
  • Hypertension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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